Adam Gomes

Sickle Cell Disease

external image Sickle.jpg
external image Sickle.jpg

Description:

sickle cell disease is a disease where a persons red blood cells are irregularly shaped into a crescent shape, similar to a sickle where the disease gets its name. it is caused by a variation of Hemoglobin in the blood. hemoglobin is what blood cells are mostly composed of. the normal type, hemoglobin A, is replaced by Hemoglobin S (s for sickle). these blood cells do not live as long as normal blood cells. hemoglobin A allows the blood cells to bring oxygen to other parts of the body. These blood cells move easily through the vessels due to their round shape. when dealing with SCD, the blood is irregularly shaped and cannot move easily through the vessels, creating clots. when the blood cannot get to certain parts of the body, the tissues it doesn't reach become damaged. this is the main problem people with SCD face.


Symptoms and Side Effects:

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external image Sickle_cell_disease.jpeg?1349481231

when a person has sickle cell disease, they will begin to show symptoms. they will have shortness of breath, coldness in the feet or hands, along with dizziness and headaches. one of the main indicators of SCD is a Sickle Cell crisis. this is when random pain will course through the body. the symptoms of someone with SCD wont usually be present until 4 months of age. Side effects people undergo while having SCD include infections, stroke, hand-foot syndrome, splenic crisis and more. bloodstream infections are the most popular cause of death for children who have SCD. Infections are easy to obtain because SCD damage the spleen, an organ that combats infections. with a spleen that doesn't function correctly, it is more common for infections to occur.



Treatments and their Side Effects:

there are some treatments and remedies for SCD, but there is no common cure. the only way to cure it is with a risky and expensive operation called a bone marrow transplant, which has cured a small number of people.Hydroxyurea (Hydrea for short) is a medicine that can be taken to relieve the disease, it helps the blood lose its sickle shape and round out more by giving the body fetal hemoglobin. people who use Hydrea require fewer blood transfusions, make less hospital visits, and statistically live longer.
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external image hydrea-2.jpg
side effects include fever, bodily aches, easy bruising, soreness of mouth and throat, and skin redness or pale skin.blood transfusions are another way to help with SCD. A problem with lthat is that over time, the body will have an iron overload that can cause vital organs to function improperly. Also, over the counter medicines and simple hydration can help aid the problems SCD has.


Populations, Inheritance and Control of SCD:

Over two million americans have SCD, and the disease is mostly found in african americans, 10% of their population has this disease. it is also very present in
hispanics, but less so. overall, it is a worldwide disease. control or prevention of SCD cant happen, but genetic counseling can inform two parents if their offspring
will have the disease, as this disease is one that can only be acquired through the parents of the organism. it is an inherited disease that comes from the chromosome
for hemoglobin, chromosome 11. this is the only way for it to be inherited, if both parents have the sickle cell gene, it only takes one from each, and neither parent may
have the disease themselves.


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external image 010312-NFL-Steelers-Ryan-Clark-PI-AA_20120103153012225_660_320-650x315.jpg
external image hemoglobinchrom.jpg
external image hemoglobinchrom.jpg